The manuscripts that comprise the Shamokin diary are held in the Moravian Archives in Bethlehem, Pa and are available on microfilm in Moravian Missions among American Indians Records; ca. 1735-1900.  Microfilm.  (40 rolls)  The late Reverend Carl John Fliegel (1886-1961), research Assistant at the Archives of the Moravian Church from 1952 to his death and a native of Germany,  read every word of about twenty-five thousand pages of these manuscripts, and prepared an elaborate card index, consisting of an estimated 30 000 cards with 135 000 entries.  Although this index is invaluable in its assistance to the researcher, for many who cannot read the original text to which it refers, it has become the primary source of information on which scholarship is based.  Thus, the categories that Fliegel devised for the indexing of the enormous amount of manuscript materials, have become the categories that determine the description of Indian missions. For example, Fliegel does not include a category on women.  Where he does include an entry for “visits,” he does not explain that these are pastoral visits that were conducted very frequently by the European women to the Native women and thus constitute a crucial locus of cultural exchange.  It was at these visits that the Moravian Brothers and Sisters conducted “spiritual interviews,” according to the guidelines established by Count Zinzendorf. In this way, the categories of importance to Fliegel in the 1950s have determined to some extent  subsequent categories of inquiry. The vocabulary also reflects his own understanding of the material.

However, even with these caveats, the Fliegel Index does provide us with an overview of the activities noted in the mission diary .

1742 Zinzendorf’s Travel Journal

9/15/1742        The Delaware are treated as foolish children by the Five Nations

9/15/1742        The Delaware are said to have a “King” at Shamokin

9/15/1742        The Seneca are the Keepers of the path to the Iroquois

9/29/1742        The Delaware political organization mentioned

9/29/1742        The Cherokee War with the Iroquois (1736) mentioned

9/30/1742        The Catawba are mentioned, also known as “Kattabes, Gatapes, Cattobats”



9/16/1745        Mack’s arrival

9/17/1745;       idem

9/18/1745        Drinking & carousing

9/19/1745.       the Cherokee are referenced


10/8/1745        The Delaware Shamokin residents are friendly to Mack

10/9/1745        The Delaware Warriors are marching against the Flatheads

10/12/1745      The Delaware seem disinterested

10/13/1745      Delaware Individuals listen to Mack’s words

10/19/1745      Drunkenness & violence

10/24/1745      Delawares Shamokin group having a feast

10/28/1745      Delawares have a town on the Susquehanna

10/31/1745      Shawnee Individual expresses Five Nations’ displeasure at presence of missionaries


11/2/1745        Cherokee to be attacked

11/2/1745;       All night dancing & howling

11/3/1745.       Mack is relieved by Hagen

11/3/1745        Prospects evaluated by Mack

11/6/1745        Evaluated by Weiser


5/5/1746;        Blacksmith urgently needed at Shamokin

6/27/1746        Request represented to Gov. Thomas

9/7/1746          Five Nations siding with the British

12/27/1746      Five Nations Fighting against the French



4/14/1747        Project of establishing a forge

4/18/1747        Mack & Nathanael arriving

4/18/1747        Delawares Chief Alomoebey, without authority

4/19/1747        Shawnee residing along Susquehanna, West Branch

4/21/1747       Blacksmith project discussed at Conference

4/21/1747        Outdoor conference with chief and advisers

4/21/1747        Delawares Nationals excluded from Conference

4/21/1747       Flatheads frequently attacked


5/26/1747        Hagen’s activities

5/31/1747       Shamokin eached by Hagen & Powell

5/28/1747       Opening of blacksmith shop planned


6/9/1747        Starvation diet

6/1/1747         Lumber prepared for the mission house

6/3/1747         Measurements of house given

6/7/1747         Delawares Warriors marching against the Catawba

6/13/1747       Framework finished

6/15/1747        Grubbing

6/17/1747        Plowing

6/16/1747        Shingles made

6/22/1747        Roof made

6/24/1747       New house occupied

6/30/1747       Mission house roof finished by Hagen


7/2/1747          Chimney made

7/8/1747          Chimney and door

7/11/1747        Forge finished

7/16/1747        Ceiling

/7/18/1747       Shikellimy’s help enlisted

7/24/1747        Smithy opened

7/29/1747        Nanticoke residing at the mouth of the Juniata River


8/2/1747          First pedelavium & communion service

8/2/1747;         Erection of the smithy praised by Shikellimy

8/20/1747        Sewing for Indians without charge by Missionaries’ wives

8/20/1747;       Account book for work at the forge

8/20/1747        Workers’ conference

8/20/1747;       Attitude of aloofness from traders

8/20/1747;       Indians kept on the preferred list at the forge

8/20/1747        Daily morning & evening devotions among missionaries enjoyed

8/25/1747        Symptoms of prevailing sickness described


9/7/1747          Hagen buried in the turnip field

9/29/1747        Mack in charge


10/5/1747        Preparations for making charcoal

10/12/1747      Flatheads attacked by war party;

10/13/1747      Flatheads new attack

10/16/1747     Boards for a floor in the mission house

10/19/1747    Indians kept on the preferred list at the forge

10/22/1747      Turnips saved from light-fingered Indians

10/23/1747      Floor laid

10/26/1747      Sewing of shirt expected of missionary’s wife

10/26/1747      Delaware nationality of mother found dead

10/28/1747    Use of charcoal

10/30/1747     Charcoal-kiln started


11/6/1747      Fire in the kiln started

11/[?]/1747     Coal-shed built

11/7/1747        Venison as payment for shirt making

11/7/1747      First married people’s quarter hour

11/8/1747     Less emphasis on Sunday than on Sabbath

11/9/1747        Guns fixed at the smithy

11/13/1747      Delaware Visitors

11/14/1747     Sabbath lovefeast

11/19/1747    Charcoal manufactured

11/20/1747      Delaware Individual accused of  poisoning by magic

11/21/1747     Married people’s quarter hour

11/23/1747     Shroud made for a child

11/23/1747      Delaware Individual treated with kindness

11/27/1747    Cobbler’s work

11/28/1747    Disturbance at night


12/5/1747       Sabbath observance

12/16/1747      Deep snow

12/17/1747     Snow drifts & severe cold

12/19/1747      Delaware Customers at the blacksmith shop

12/20/1747      Delaware Visitors

12/23/1747     Disturbance by intoxicated Indians

12/25/1747     Christmas observed with a lovefeast

12/25/1747      Description of lovefeast buns

12/26/1747    Married people’s quarter hour

12/30/1747      Laundry work for Indians

12/30/1747      Delaware Hungry visitors

12/31/1747;    New Year’s Eve watchnight service



1/4/1748           Powell in charge

1/4/1748         Workers conference

1/4/1748         No social relations with traders

1/9/1748.         Sabbath observance leading to astonishing questions

1/9/1748          Tutelo Visitors wondering about Moravian Sabbath observances

1/18/1748        Delaware residing at Waphallobank

1/23/1748 st. v.  Earthquake felt at Shamokin

1/28/1748        Catawba cruel, able to defend themselves


2/19/1748      Disturbance at night

2/23/1748      Drunkenness


3/5/1748          Mingoe (Iroquois) Visitor

3/18/1748      Town flooded

3/10/1748      Land cleared for farming

3/22/1748        Mission house improved

3/24/1748        Delaware Young woman instructed on the uselessness of liquor

3/25/1748      Fruit trees planted

3/27/1748        Mingo Visitor receiving treatment by bloodletting


  1.                  Help thankfully acknowledged

4/4/1748          Entertainment by dancing warriors

4/5/1748          Catawba to be attacked

4/15/1748        Sabbath & Sunday observance enjoyed

4/15/1748        Payment at the forge with hides and pelts

4/15/1748.       No charge accounts at the forge

4/15/1748        No objection to acceptance of venison for sewing by missionaries’ wives

4/15/1748        Agricultural enterprises to be kept at a minimum

4/15/1748        No seed available for making a garden

4/18/1748      Mack in charge

4/28/1748      Disturbance by drunken & noisy Indians


5/4/1748         Smith-shop temporarily closed

5/8/1748         Liquor stealing & drinking

5/12/1748        Grubbing for corn-planting

5/13/1748        Marcus Kiefer arriving at Shamokin as fence-builder

5/16/1748        Delaware individual recognizing the causes of Indians’ misery

5/17/1748        Nanticoke migrating toward the upper Susquehanna

5/18/1748        Nanticoke gathering at the smith-shop

5/20/1748        Nanticoke individual craving for white people’s bread

5/21/1748        Nanticoke leaving

5/31/1748        Rattlesnake, dangerous to Mack


6/1/1748         Cabbages planted

6/4/1748;         Delaware Living on Shamokin Island

6/5/1748;         Everybody drunk

6/8/1748          Corn ruined by hail

6/13/1748        Closing of the smith shop regretted

6/13/1748        Delaware Visitors complaining about the long absence of the smith

6/16/1748        Smith shop opened

6/18/1748.       Disturbance by traders

6/26/1748;       Indians not permitted to work at the forge on Sabbath or Sunday

6/26/1748       Traders strictly kept out of the house

6/26/1748        House to be kept clean & free from vermin

6/26/1748        Workers conference

6/26/1748        Renewed emphasis on linguistic studies


11/30/1748;     Zeisberger in charge

11/30/1748;     Communion service for smallest group


12/7/1748        Rail splitting



1/5/1749          Susquehanna River separating the Shamokin mission from Logan’s residence

1/6/1749;         Diary kept by Rauch

1/7/1749;         Noise by drunken Indians

1/11/1749;       Sleepless night for missionaries

1/18/1749        Delaware Nationality of Lapachpiton .

1/25/1749       Disgusting scenes

1/25/49        Catawba Visitors in frightening attire

1/29/1749.       Brawl silenced by missionary’s singing


2/11/1749        Delaware Neighbors looked at with pity

2/16/1749;       Services till 2 a.m.

2/19/1749        Mohawk Nationality of Sociziówonhe;

2/24/1749;       Drunken brawls & fighting

2/25/1749;       Everybody sleeping


3/5/1749         Delaware Individual dying from overdose of whiskey

3/7/1749          Disgusting scenes

3/9/1749          Delaware Individual buried with difficulty

3/11/1749        Everybody sick & weak

3/12/1749.       After-effects of drinking spree

3/14/1749        Repair work on fences

3/19/1749        Tutelo Nationality of Shikellimy’s widow

3/20/1749        Nanticoke Visitor giving his opinion on Shamokin Indians

3/20/1749        Population held in low regard

3/26/1749;       Easter dawn services beginning after midnight

3/27/1749        Mohawk Visitors at Shamokin

3/30/1749        Canoe bought

3/31/1749        Dinner menu at Shamokin


4/3/1749          Zeisberger keeping the diary

4/4/1749          Big drinking affair

4/10/1749        Cayuga. Nationality of Tianoge

4/10/1749        Travelling plans of members of Great Council discussed

4/11/1749;       Poor economic situation

4/11/1749        Tuscarora Warriors returning to Wahochquáge

4/12/1749        Delaware Nationality of superstitious visitor

4/19/1749        Delaware Tribesmen settling on the Susquehanna West Branch

4/19/1749        Mohawk Nationals settling at Ostonwakin

4/19/1749        Five Nations Visit considered by Zeisberger

4/22/1749       Five Nations Wampum message from Weiser

4/26/1749        Charge of Delaware black magic raised


5/9/1749          Steps to avoid involvement in drinking affair

5/14/1749;       Idem

5/14/1749        Delaware Drinking

5/14/1749        Five Nations Delegates seen on their way to Philadelphia

5/20/1749        Nanticoke Migrating toward Wyoming

5/23/1749;       Lesson in plowing by Zeisberger

5/27/1749        Big drinking affair

5/31/1749        Delaware Tribesman killed as alleged sorcerer

5/31/1749        Mohawk Nationals killing a Delaware for alleged sorcery

5/31/1749;       Delaware burial ground used for burial of an alleged sorcerer


6/9/1749          Five Nations Councillors arriving at Shamokin

6/10/1749        Onondago Warriors described with pleasure

6/12/1749        Five Nations Councillors found polite & modest

6/15/1749        Delaware Nationals not participating in treaty at Lancaster


7/2/1749          Blacksmith’s Sabbath & Sunday rest criticized

7/13/1749        Nanticoke regretting omission of visits by Moravians

7/14/1749        Cayuga Visitors praised as friendly and modest

7/20/1749        Five Nations Leaders arriving at Shamokin

7/22/1749        Five Nations Visitors at Shamokin

7/22/1749        Onondago Visitor at Shamokin.

7/22/1749        Seneca Visitor at Shamokin

7/24/1749        Mission premises at the disposal of Iroquois guests

7/25/1749;       Drinking & noise all night

7/26/1749;       Brotherly treatment by intoxicated visitors

7/26/1749        Seneca Visitors provided with presents from Bethlehem

7/26/1749        Five Nations Plan of visit by Bethlehem leaders



1/8/1750.         Work taken over by Zeisberger

1/8/1750          Delaware

1/23/1750        Delaware called a bad people ;

1/30/1750        Cayuga Nationality of Hahotschaunquas


2/3/1750          Delaware Visitors accused of causing damage

2/3/1750          Tutelo Visitors accused of causing damage


2/3/1750           Cayuga

2/8/1750;         Cayuga Nationality of Swatãne (Shikellimy)

2/24/1750;       Disagreement on charges for work at the smithy

2/24/1750        Reputation of honest dealing defended against false charge

2/18/1750;       Bloody fight among traders

2/25/1750;       Everybody drinking


3/5/1750         Drinking & wife-beating


6/3/1752         Grube called into service.



4/14/1753       Grube in charge

4/16/1753;       Chimney for the new mission house

4/17/1753;       Disturbance by drinking Indians

4/19/1753        Undisturbed Passion services

4/26/1753        Chickens stolen by intoxicated Indians

4/30/1753        Canoe making


5/8/1753            New house in more advantageous location

5/8/1753            Farming activities kept on the level of Indian economy

5/8/1753             No cordiality with traders

5/8/1753             Five Nations Pleased with missionaries’ attitude toward traders

5/[?]/1753        Forge run on a basis of self-support

5/21/1753        Conoy, (al. “Canai, Ganai, Ganey”) migrating from Maryland to the Susquehanna ;

5/21/1753        Nanticoke linguistically related to the Conoy (“Ganey”)

5/29/1753;       New mission house occupied


6/5/1753          Mohawk Warrior accidentally killing member of Montour’s family

6/10/1753       Excesses during Grube’s absence

6/10/1753        Seneca Warriors noted for robbery and violence. House and forge offered for sale


7/19/1753;       Smallpox among the children

Disposal of livestock & supplies (No. 6) undated



1/11/1754        Kliest put in charge ;

1/21/1754;       Floor laid in the mission house

1/25/1754        Frey & Roesler arriving


4/22/1754      Catawba attacked

4/27/1754       Coal & ore discovered in Susquehanna Valley


5/19/1754        Footbridges built


6/20/1754        Boards bought at the sawmill

6/25/1754        Danger by high water

6/27/1754.      Damage to mission house floor repaired


12/21/1754      Evaluation of Delaware attitude toward the gospel



3/30/1755        Lovefeast requiring sugar & tea

3/30/1755        Number of cattle kept on the mission place


4/1/1755          Roesler in charge

4/3/1755          Delaware Visitors, entertained at Shamokin

4/14/1755;       Drinking by men & women

4/29/1755        Mohawk Nationality of visiting family


5/7/1755          Mohawk Nationality mentioned of Jonathan

5/19/1755.       Deer & racoon skins sent to Bethlehem

5/31/1755.       Crops ruined by frost


6/6/1755          Picture of Shamokin economy

6/6/1755          Mail service for mission organized

6/6/1755          Land claimed by Weiser as his property

6/6/1755          Mahican Nationality of friendly family

6/8/1755;         Economy called ridiculous

6/8/1755          Spiritual situation praised by [?]

6/18/1755        Five Nations Delegates expected

6/18/1755;       Land soon to be settled by Weiser’s people


7/5/1755          Pedelavium communion

7/13/1755        Mohawk Nationality of overnight guests

7/17/1755        Delaware Well-behaved visitors

7/26/1755        Advice to flee disregarded


8/17/1755        Conoy Having a burial at Shamokin

8/24/1755;       Size of economy


9/9/1755.         Bridge repair

9/27/1755        Pedelavium and communion

9/27/1755        Marcus Kieffer taking over the work at the forge


10/1/1755;       Condensed history of the last years

10/11/1755      French Indians Seen near Shamokin

10/16/1755.     Massacre of white neighbors

10/23/1755      Allegheny Nations: Sending wampum with fierce threats

10/26/1755      French Indians Seen close to Shamokin

10/26/1755      Close to bloody action by hostile Indians

10/30/1755      Conoy Nationality of Schafmann