Rauch’s Diary of the Shamokin Mission 02/01/49-04/02/49

On Wednesday, the 1st several of the Tutelo Indians arrived here again. They occupied themselves with whisky in the evening and had a lot of fun through the night with it.

On Thursday, the 2nd John Senior visited us with his wife and they stayed the whole afternoon with us and were both very friendly.

On Friday the 3rd, John Senior, Shikellamy’s eldest son left from here with the Tutelos to go on the hunt. So everything here in our neighborhood became very quiet again.

On the Sabbath, the 4th, we held a blessed and peaceful Sabbath. We were much with our little spirits in Bethlehem with our dear and beloved hearts at our holy Love Feast and comforted ourselves that we would soon hear something through our dear David. In the evening Brother Christian and the Antons held a blessed Quarter of an Hour.

On Sunday the 5th we were a little melancholy that David stayed away so long and didn’t know what we should make of this. We comforted each other with various causes. Chrsitian and Anton set off in the afternoon to try to meet him at the Spangenberg (Mahotango mountain) but they returned home again without David.

On Monday the 6th some of our neighbors returned from the hunt again. We fetched wood for the fire for our house.

On Tuesday, the 7th nothing really happened. We were blessed and we enjoyed peace and quiet from the outside.

On Wednesday and Thursday nothing happened once again. We were blessed and content among ourselves and were visited by some Delaware Indians who live in our neighborhood.

On Friday the 10th of February Captain John, his [Shikellamy’s] son returned from the hunt with his wife. [It is the same one that was in Bethlehem for a short time]. He laid his things down in our house for safekeeping and then went to the Delaware Indians in our neighborhood. He was very friendly to us.

On the Sabbath, the 11th, we had the most lovely, sweet, blessed, contented and peaceful Sabbath. During our little Love Feast we especially thought of our precious hearts in Bethlehem. After this, Christian went to visit the Delaware Indians with Brother Anton but we could do nothing more there than be quiet and regard them with compassion. In the evening Captain John visited us with his son and his wife and Christian told them something of his most beloved little Lamb. He listened very attentively and said to everything, “kihelle”

On Sunday the 12th we had many visits from the Delaware Indians. Brother Christian read several sermons of Brother Ludwig [Zinzendorf] to Brother and Sister Anton and also several chapters from the New Testament. In the evening he held a blessed Quarter of an Hour service with them.

On Monday the 13th, because it was Brother Anton’s birthday yesterday, and Sister Catharine’s today, we held a most sweet and dear Love Feast where we spoke about several blessed matters of the heart and marriage and felt especially close to our bloody little Lamb then.

On Tuesday, the 14th we were visited by several Indians. To our great joy, the dear heart Martin arrived for a visit here with David Zeisberger and our dear Jonathan, the Indian. We heardly knew what was happening as we were beside ourselves with joy. They brought us all kinds of sweetest and juicy little letters from our dear hearts in Bethlehem, that tasted like sweet honey to our hearts and were like a balsam to our hearts. We enjoyed them delectably until 2 o’clock in the morning and then our dear little heart David held a short Quarter of an Hour and after this we went to sleep in the arms of our dear Mama.[103]

On Wednesday the 15th we read the news that dripped with blood to our great amazement.[104] Our hearts praised the bloody Little Side and sang it one Gloria after another for it magnetic power, and for the truly bloody heavy rain.[105] Christian and Martin held a very blessed conference with each other on the current circumstances in Shamokin. Also today, Captain John’s son and his wife visited us.[106] Jonathan told him something of the little Lamb. Afterwards David and Jonathan went visiting in the Delaware houses and distributed the greetings from Christian Renatus, that he had told him to send to his brothers and sisters and his Freundschaft here, and took this opportunity to tell them something of the dearest little Lamb, and how it hungered to save the souls of the Indians and how nowadays it was especially concerned with blessing them through his dear and loyal servants and also let the Indians know that he was one of them and that they should listen to him and not despise him.

Thomas Ton (Dunn?) also visited us and needed to have something done in the smithy. Through him we let James Logan know that Brother Martin and David and Jonathan were here and that they had words to say to him from our Brothers. He should come to our house tomorrow. In the evening Jonathan and Martin went visiting in Shamokin and so we spent the day with much blessing and Brother Christian held a sweet and blessed Quarter of an Hour in the evening.

Thursday, the 16th Jonathan held a very long conference with his old [friend] Christian at which a few tears were shed. Christian also wrote to the dear hearts in Bethlehem today. We also were visited by some Delaware Indians today. In the afternoon, our dear James Logan arrived here with his wife and his wife’s cousin (Jonathan’s father’s brother) and his son and Thomas Ton [Dunn]. We received them with much love as they had warmed themselves by our fire and there was still no opportunity to hold council with them and so they went back to their homes. The dear heart Martin spoke with Brother and Sister Anton about the Communion[107] that we were thinking of holding today. In the evening Logan and Thomas Dunn came to hold council with us, so then Martin and David were able to approach their affairs sweetly. Our little Lamb was palpably close and after everything was over they gave them the presents in the name of the Brothers as a sign of their love, for which they gave their definite and polite thanks. Jonathan found all that was happening to be very significant and he felt his heart stand still, burning for his father’s brother and his daughter, Logan’s wife. He went to visit them and preached the little Lamb to them for almost two hours and he had a whole houseful of listeners.[108] When he returned from his visit, we held a sweet little Lovefeast during which Martin and Christian discussed many blessed matters.   After the Lovefeast Brother Martin held a blessed and anointed Quarter of an Hour, and after that we threw ourselves as one at the feet of the little Lamb and begged him for forgiveness of all our trespasses. After this we gave each other the Kiss of Love and then we held the Communion of the Lamb. Oh, how powerfully the little Lamb showed himself to us is beyond words. At the enjoyment of the body and the warm blood of the little Side Wound we were almost beside ourselves. Quite in love, we fell at the feet of our dearest, true Soul Bridegroom with a holy blush of sinner’s shame and sang to him an “Ave!” a “Gloria to the Side Wound!” and kissed each other once more. So the little hearts went to sleep at around 2 o’clock in the morning and for the rest of the night Christian wrote to his dear hearts in Bethlehem.

ON Friday, the 17th the dear hearts Martin and Jonathon prepared themselves to leave again. We were visited quite early also by Logan and his wife and her father and Thomas Ton. Because they wanted to speak with Martin and Jonathon before they left. They all ate breakfast with us and Jonathon began once again to preach the text to them about the little Lamb and his bloody and magnetic little Sidehole. After breakfast the two hearts departed from here, after they had taken a hearty farewell from all the Indians here and from Anton Schmidt and his wife. Logan’s wife was very moved and her ehart swam in tears, she had not quite finished talking to Jonathon and so she ran after him and her eyes were full of tears. She wanted to find out more from Jonathon and ask him about the bloody Savior, who loves sinners so much, and who loves to pull them into his Side Hole, and so she went half a mile after them and with Jonathon like a hungry calf or little sheep. Oh! Our hearts nearly broke into pieces on her behalf. Christian was full of tears also at the occasion that his dear Anna is not here and through Martin let the Brethren know his opinion and with Brother David accompanied Martin and Jonathon to Eva Creek.[109] There they took leave of each other amid many hot tears of love.   In the evening Brother Christian held a blessed Quarter of an Hour.

On the Sabbath, the 18th February, out little Lamb was especially close to us with his bloody little Side Hole. We held a sweet love feast. In the afternoon, Phillip, a Delaware Indian visited us. Brother Christian preached to him about the slaughtered little Lamb with a heart full of burning love and hunger for his soul, to direct it to the little Side Hole. He listened very attentively.

ON Sunday, the 19th, a Maqua Indian visited us from the Long Island, his name was Sociziówonhe. Brother Anton was to do something for him. He asked us if it were true, what he had heard, that shortly before the Swatane’s end, he had visited us. He also asked us if we would not come soon to the Long Island to visited him. We answered him, perhaps. David visited the Schafman who returned yesterday from the hunt. Christian and David also went visiting yesterday in the Delaware huts. In the evening, Brother Christian held a blessed and anointed Quarter of an Hour.

On Monday, 20th February nothing new happened. Everything was quiet in Shamokin and we were ahppy and content in the dearest little Side Hole of our Husband.

On Tuesday, the 21st many Indians returned from the hunt today to fetch provisions, but left again very quickly. A few visited us, and we did so also in return.

On Wednesday, the 22nd almost everyone in Shamokin travelled to Thomas McGee to sell skins there and fetch whisky. John Petty and Thomas Dunn (TON)also came home and visited us, also Schafman.

On Thursday, the 23rd some of our neighbors came home and brought whisky with them and soon opened it up and were reveling all night through with it. The Mohican woman visited us today and was very friendly to us. We also gave her some turnips because she wanted to return to her husband, James Logan, today.

ON Friday, 24th our neighbors continued to amuse themselves with whisky and carried on a terrible noise all day and sometimes got into nonsense and fights on account of it, and their weapons in this were firebrands. John Petty and Thomas Dunn (Ton) returned from the bush to visit with us. We believed that they came to make sure that no harm came to us. They also resisted temptation and did not get into the drink.

On the Sabbath, the 25th, we had a peaceful and blessed Sabbath. Everything around us was also very quiet. Our neighbors were very tired, they slept almost the whole day and we were joyful and blessed in the wound of our bloody Husband and in our hearts were much with our hearts of tears (fellow Moravians) in Bethlehem and on their travels, and everywhere.

On Sunday the 26th we had some visits from Indians. David also went out today and looked around in Shamokin. We were unspeakably happy in the dearest little Dide Hole of our Husband. In the evening Christian held a very sweet and blessed little Quarter of an Hour.

On Monday the 27th Indians came here again with whisky. John Petty visited us today and spoke a lot with Davis, told him that his brothers would soon come and then not go on the hunt again. He showed himself to be very friendly. Thomas Dunn also came to visit us and we invited him to eat at midday with us and that was very important to him.

On Tuesday the 28th we were visited again by Thomas Dunn and John Petty. Shikellamy’s daughter also came to visit us. We gave her something to eat because we believed that she was in need and had nothing more to cook so we shared corn and beans with her for which she thanked us greatly and admitted that she had nothing more to eat with her children and so it was a great joy to us that we could give her something.


Wednesday, March 1 nothing really happened. We were very content among ourselves and everything was very peaceful from without in Shamokin.

On Thursday and Friday everything was very quiet here and nothing much happened. Christian and David both went out to shoot ducks on the Susquehanna.

On the Sabbath, the 4th of March we held a very blessed and content Sabbath. We were much with our hearts in Bethlehem and also thought much about the Brothers and Sisters who were coming to us from Europe, also about our dear Johannes, and everything. In the morning already we had visits from the Indians Thomas Dunn and John Petty and their wives were with us a lot today. We invited them to eat breakfast with us and they were very friendly and grateful and we belived that they were very hungry. In the evening, 3 warriors came here from the Catawbas (country). All three of them were Shawnee and tall, strong and very handsome and attractive Indians.

On Sunday the 5th, the tall woman, Shickellamy’s daughter visited us. She was in need as she had nothing to eat. She bemoaned her state so that we wanted to cry tears of blood. We gave her and her children something to eat and there was much joy at this and we gave her Indian corn and beans so that she could live for a while. The warriors were in her house, and she very much wanted to give them something and as she received something from us she was happy that she could give the poor hungry people something too. The warriors, along with Thomas Dunn, visited us this morning and were very friendly and modest towards us. In the afternoon 2 Delaware returned from Thomas McGee’s and brought much whisky with the. One of the, suddenly died a few hours after his arrival. He was the youngest son of Brother Christian Renatus’ sister. A tall, handsome Indian. Everyone assumed that it was the whisky that was the cause of his sudden death, as he had been a great friend of it.

On Monday the 6th, Daniel a Delaware Indian visited us in the morning and let us know that his youngest brother had died and whether we would do him the favor of making a coffin for him, because he was all alone at home, his mother and brother and other siblings were still at Thomas McGee’s. We assured him of our willingness to do this and Brother Anton went with him to see his brother and to measure his length. The three warriors opened up the whisky today and had a great revelry with it. Finally everyone, who was in Shamokin, young and old, was sucked in.

On Tuesday, the 7th of March Brothers David and Anton made a coffin for the Delaware Indian. It was also a very somber time in Shamokin today. Everyone was drunk and they rolled around in the dirt like pigs and bellowed the whole night like rabid animals and got into fights so that murder and death almost came out of this and so they continued with this.

Wednesday, the 8th March things were almost worse than yesterday. Everything looked so pitiful, who ever was sober fled into the bush and brought their flints and axes to our house for safekeeping (to prevent more accidents). Like poor little chickens we commended ourselves to the little Lamb for safety under his wings, and he loyally protected us through all the tumult. They would really have liked to bury the Delaware today but there was no one who could do it as they were all drunk beyond reason.

On Thursday, the 9th March the Indians who were still half drunk tried to bury the Delaware Indian because he smelled very badly. But it was a pitiful affair. Christian and David and Anton were also at the burial. Hardly did they have him in the ground than the whisky had to hold sway again. They drank to such an extent that one could hardly think other than it would start shooting flames out of their mouths again. John Petty and Thomas Dorn and their wives had also succumbed to this folly and Thomas Dorn almost beat his wife to death today, And so it went on the whole night so that one could hardly shut ones eyes on account of the terrible noise.

On Saturday [sic] (Friday) the 10th everything was very empty and quiet in Shamokin until the evening. Then they began to drink the Delawares’ whisky and got very happy by about half past eleven and then they all went home happy and lusty.

On the Sabbath, the 11th March everything in our neighborhood was very quiet. The whisky was all gone and their bodies were all tormented and tired. Almost everyone was sick and sleepy and so we were able to hold a very sweet Sabbath. It was also so homely [Heimlich] as though there were no other people in Shamokin except us.   We held a sweet and blessed love feast during which we thought as Christans of our dear hearts in Bethlehem. In the evening Borhter Christian held a blessed Quarter of an Hour Service. We thanked the little Lamb that He dealt with us so beautifully in Shamokin. He allows us to see tangibly that He is with us, among us, and at home with us in Shamokin and that he holds his hands over us. It humbled us all very much to see what kind of loyalty He had shown us throughout the week.

On Sunday 12th March the Indians came to visit us, fetched their flints and axes out of our house again. Some however hardly wanted to show their faces to us for shame, for they looked so pitiful, so pale and sickly, as though they had just risen from the grave. Some were driven by their great hunger to hunt for ducks. Brother Christian held a blessed Quarter of an Hour service in the evening.

On Monday, the 13th an Indian brought whisky here again and so they started with the drinking again in the evening and were very rowdy again the whole night through.

On Tuesday, the 14th we worked on our Fence and tried to fix it with new boards because this winter our neighbors had burned quite a few of the boards without our knowledge.

On Wednesday, the 15th we continued to work on the Fence. However, some Indians came to us and complained to us of their great hunger. We opened our gentle hand to them because they made us feel sorry for them.

On Thursday, the 16th, John Petty and his wife and Thomas Dunn and his wife left here to go to Logan, who is catching beavers around Thomas McGees. They reassured us that they would return soon.

On Friday the 17th Shikellamy’s daughter came to visit us to let us know of her great hunger. We gave her some beans and Argritgens[110] so that she had some food for her children. Christian felt slightly ill in his body today.

On the Sabbath, the 18th, two Germans came here from Tulpehocken. They said they were traders but their appearance was not that of traders. They both seemed very suspicious to us. They only stayed with us for a few minutes and then they continued with their intention and went on to Wyoming, Some Indians also came to visit us today. After our little love feast, during which we were quite blessed, Anton and they [Sie]? Went to visit the Delawared, but found none at home. The men were all out on the hunt. In the evening Christian held a sweet and blessed Quarter of an Hour service.

On Sunday, the 19th March we were particularly blessed and content among ourselves. Thought a lot today about our dear hearts everywhere . In the afternoon four Tutelos arrived here. One of them was Shikellamy’s previous wife who he had taken at the end. Otherwise not much happened.

On Monday the 20th March Shikellamy’s previous wife and her husband came to visit us. Christian tested to see if he had ears to hear something about the Savior but he wanted to hear nothing of it. Christian took in his sails again. In the afternoon three canoes full of Indians went past here. They stopped here for an hour. They had brought work for the smithy that they wanted to have ready went they returned from Thomas McGee’s, They had loaded their canoes with skins and Indian corn. In the evening 2 Nanticokes arrived here from the hunt and were retuning home to Wyoming [Valley]. One of them visited us. He was a well-behaved man. He was also hungry. We gave him something to eat. He complained greatly about our Indians here, that they were the most dissolute and drunken people that he knew among the Indians and he would not want to live here for all the world. He told us that a woman from here had brought a lot of whisky back to Shamokin. These Indians who loved drink were very happy about her arrival.

On Tuesday, the 21st March the Nanticoke visited us again and complained that he had almost frozen in the night. He wanted to warm himself by our fire and because we believed that his hosts here would not have given him anything to eat, we invited him to eat breakfast with us. The man was very grateful and he said that he was very hungry and he was very freidnly and modest towards us and because it was raining so hard today he would stay in Shamokin. This evening a few Delaware Indians visited us.

On Wednesday the 22nd March the two Nanticokes left here. Beforehand they came into our house to say goodbye. Otherwise nothing much happened.

On Thursday the 23rd almost all the Indians here left to go to Thomas McGee. So Shamokin became quite empty . Only two women and a few children were left.

On Friday, the 24th four Indians from the Long Island arrived. They had been hunting there. Two came to see us immediately and one of them was the son of Captain John [Shikellamy]. He was especially friendly to Brother Christian and called him his brother and Christian began to tell him about the Savior again. He listened carefully. In the afternoon Christian and David went to visit the other two. They were resting by the Susquehanna. One of them was called Jacob Vorsänger. In the evening Brother Christian held a blessed Quarter of an Hour.

On the Sabbath, the 25th we were in our hearts with our dear hearts in Bethlehem. We had a sweet Love Feast during which we were unspeakably happy. In the afternoon the two Germans who had been here a week ago returned from Wyomingin a canoe. Two miles from us they had shot a stag and they wanted to give it to us. We thanked them and said that we did not need it as much as the poor Indians here who had nothing to eat. And so the stag came to the Indians. They were very happy about it. Logan also came back from the hunt with his whole retinue. We visited them soon after his arrival.. Also three Irish Traders arrived here from Wyoming and three Shawnees. They brought news that a Shawnee in the area of Wyoming had been beaten to death by another Indian and the son of the slain man was right now in Shamokin. He became very downcast at the news. The two Germans travelled on today. Also the Irish men. But the three Shawnee stayed here. Jakob Vorsinger came to visit us this evening and Brother Christian told him much about the Savior and this warmed Christian’s heart.

On Sunday, the 26th March, on Easter Day, we rose after midnight and celebrated a small and sweet Love Feast among ourselves. And at the same time our little hearts rejoiced with our dear brothers and sisters of the heart in Bethlehem over our very dearest little Lamb and his bloody little Hole. We felt quite remarkable in our thoughts about our brothers and sisters. Christian spent the whole night happily on watch. In the morning as the day broke we went to our dear Brother Hagen’s gravesite and rejoiced childlike. [111] Christian and David visited Logan today and the Blackfish and Shawnee who were staying in his house. He told us that John Petty and Thomas Dorn were going to make the trip to Onondago and soon. But they were not sure how soon. [sic] We saw that they had almost nothing to eat and so the feeling entered into Christian heart to give them something and he called Logan’s wife the Mohican woman into our house and gave her a Thönen of Indian corn seeds, which he had shucked on Friday and in addition baked peaches and grits and beans. The presents were great and quite a wonder and joy to her. In the evening Brother Christian held a sweet and blessed Quarter of an Hour.

ON Monday the 27th March Christian and David visited Logan and he told us that he was waiting for many Maqua Indians here [Iroquois] who were to dance here. We were also visited by various Indians today. In the evening the few Indians who were already here started to practice their dances.

On Tuesday, the 28th three Maqua Indians arrived here from the Long Island. Two of them came to visit us shortly after they arrived. We gave them something to eat. Today a few Delaware also travelled to Tulpehocken. In the evening they were very jolly here and danced half the night; alternately, the men and the women. Christian and David watched.

On Wednesday, the 29th we received many visits from the Indians. Logan came to visit us also with the Maqua Indians who had arrived yesterday. Also the eldest son of Shikellamy, John, came home today and many Indians with him. In the evening John Senior, James Logan, John Petty and Thomas Dorn came to our house and had to hold council with each other about several issues. They were unable to do this in any other house but ours because almost all the other houses were full. They did this until 10 in the evening. They showed themselves to be all very friendly and modest to us. Afterwards they began to dance again.

On Thursday the 30th of March a trader with several Indians arrived here from the Long Island. The trader continued on today to Thomas McGee’s. Christian opened Catharine’s veins today. Afterwards he went to visit Logan with David. We were much visited today by the Indians but most of all by the Indian women. Today everything was very quiet in Shamokin. We bought a canoe today from Shikellamy’s eldest son for 30 Shillings.

[John Senior told the Maqua Indians about Bethlehem today]

On Friday, the 31st Catharine was sickly. Brothers Christian and David took care of her work. We both visited today in Logan’s hut. We invited Logan and his two brothers and Thomas Dorn to eat with us a noon. We had roasted a rib of venison and with it we had cooked baked peaches and they liked this very much. After eating we smoked a pipe of tobacco with them and during this they started talking again about the trip to Onondago and immediately ordered David to write a letter to the Brothers in Bethlehem to let them know. And they also took this opportunity to give Christian an Indian name, Tschigochgoharong, because the name Christian was difficult for Indians to pronounce. That’s why they wanted to give him another name that would become known among the Indians. We were extremely friendly today. After all this was over we gave John Seniors and John Betty and the Swatane’s daughter’s daughter each a Bar Lauscher because they had not received anything and the last time Brother Martin had not been here.

ON the Sabbath, the 1st April (o.s.) almost everyone in the area went on the hunt to get meat because they intend to make a great sacrifice. Weh ad a sweet Love Feast today and were very happy.

On Sunday, the 2nd of April Christian prepared himself for the journey to Bethlehem ad spoke before hand with the bothers and sisters about everything he deemed necessary to remind them of and in the evening he held a blessed Quarter of an Hour.